Computer services vendors

Computer services vendors are a primary source of voice and audio response authorization services.

Bank card associations and computer services vendors are primary sources of credit card issuance, processing, statement preparation, collection, and account maintenance.

Unbundling is occurring both in services rendered to financial institutions and to (at least) large retailers. Entry of VAN vendors and large retailers offering their national VANs for financial transaction processing into the marketplace is expected to accelerate the unbundling process.